Friday, April 18, 2014
Survival Is the Saudi Key Word
By Nicola Nasser*
Survival is the key word to understand the Saudi dynasty’s latest external and internal policies. These are designed to pre-empt change but paradoxically they are creating more enemies in a changing world order marked by turbulent regional geopolitics and growing internal demands for change.
The seventy-year old strategic oil for security US-Saudi alliance seemed about to crack on its 69th anniversary ahead of the summit meeting of US President Barak Obama and king Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz in March.
now committed to pivoting east and possibly on track to become an oil exporter
by 2017, American and Saudi policies are no longer identical. US
President George W. Bush’s democracy campaign, which Saudi opposed, alerted its
rulers to be on guard. The Arab popular protests since 2011 pushed them into leading
a regional defensive counterrevolution and ever since the gap in bilateral
relations has been widening. US
The Saudis could not trust the US’ “regime change” strategy in the region, which depends on the Muslim Brotherhood International (MBI) as an instrument of change, sponsored by a regional rival like Turkey and a co-member of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), like Qatar, which has been for long contesting the Saudi leadership of the GCC, the Saudi leading role in Arab politics and the Saudi political representation of Sunni Muslims.
This trilateral alliance of
Turkey and the MBI would
develop into a real threat to Saudi’s survival if it was allowed to deliver
change in Syria, Iraq, Egypt,
Yemen, Lebanon, Tunisia,
and elsewhere in the region. It might quickly leave Libya as the next target for
“change.” Saudi Arabia
The US pillar of Saudi security now seems to be in doubt as the United States stands unable to meet Saudi expectations on almost all the most critical issues in the Middle East, from the Arab-Israeli conflict to the Saudi-Iran conflict and the ongoing bloody conflict in Syria, let alone the conflict with the MBI, especially in Egypt.
Within this context, using the MBI as an instrument for “regime change” in the region has created a Saudi MBI phobia. Change is overdue in the kingdom, but, after decades of intensive Islamic education, change could only come camouflaged in Islamist form.
“It might seem ironic for a Wahhabi theocracy to oppose so forcefully a party that mixes religion with politics. But it is precisely because the monarchy bases its legitimacy on Islam that it fears Brotherhood rivalry,” journalist Roula Khalaf wrote in the Financial Times in March.
Obama doesn’t seem capable of mending the bilateral fences. His refusal to fight Saudi regional wars reminds them that he is the same man who as a state senator back in 2002 stated that:
“Let's fight to make sure our so-called allies in the Middle East - the Saudis and the Egyptians - stop oppressing their own people, and suppressing dissent, and tolerating corruption and inequality, and mismanaging their economies.”
However, as demonstrated by Obama’s visit to the kingdom on March 28, the bilateral differences will remain tactical, while the strategic alliance will hold until the kingdom finds a credible alternative to its American security guarantor, although this seems an unrealistic development in the foreseen future.
Regionally, the kingdom is not faring better. The US-promoted and Saudi–advocated anti-Iran “front” of regional “moderates,” with
as an undercover partner, seems now a forgone endeavor. Israel
The Saudi call for converting the GCC “council” into a “union” is now dead.
Saudi invitation to
and Morocco to join the GCC
was unwelcome by other GCC members and by . Morocco
the kingdom has intervened militarily to squash a three-year old ongoing
democratic uprising. Bahrain
The latest Kuwait-hosted Arab summit meeting did not see eye to eye with Saudi on
Forming a Lebanese government without Hezbullah and its pro-Syria coalition has failed.
Meanwhile, the kingdom continues to deal with
as an “existential threat.” Iran
In the background, the Israeli threat could never be overlooked.
Using petrodollars as soft power to gain influence abroad and secure loyalty internally, the kingdom seems self-confident enough, or overconfident, to feel secured on its own.
Speaking at the
College of William and Mary in Williamsburg,
Virginia, on March 11, Prince Turki al–Faisal, chairman
of the King Faisal
Center for Research & Islamic
Studies in Riyadh and former Saudi Ambassador to
the , said: US
“Saudi Arabia represents over 20% of the combined GDP of the Middle East-North Africa (MENA) region (and over a quarter of the Arab World’s GDP) making it … an effective partner and member of the G20.
“The Saudi stock market represents over 50% of the entire stock market capitalization of the MENA region.
“The Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA), the Kingdom’s central bank, is the world’s third largest holder of net foreign assets … Last but not least, Saudi Aramco, the Kingdom’s national oil company, is the world’s largest producer and exporter of petroleum and has by far the world’s largest sustained production capacity infrastructure.”
However, veteran journalist Karen Elliot House, has presented a starkly ominous picture.
“Sixty percent of Saudis are 20 or younger, most of whom have no hope of a job,” House wrote in her 2012 book. “Seventy percent of Saudis cannot afford to own a home. Forty percent live below the poverty line. The royals, 25,000 princes and princesses, own most of the valuable land and benefit from a system that gives each a stipend and some a fortune. Foreign workers make the Kingdom work; the 19 million Saudi citizens share the Kingdom with 8.5 million guest workers.”
According to House, regional differences are “a daily fact of Saudi life.” Hejazis in the West and Shiites in the East resent the strict Wahhabi lifestyle. Gender discrimination is a growing problem. Sixty percent of Saudi college graduates are women but they account for only twelve percent of the work force.
Moreover, according to Anthony H. Cordesman, published by the Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS) on April 21, 2011, “There are serious gaps between ‘haves’ and ‘have nots,’ regional differences in wealth and privilege, and tensions between Saudi Shi’ites and Saudi Sunnis.”
The kingdom has been squandering billions upon billions of petrodollars in a lost battle to finance a regional counterrevolution. Some $20bn dollars were pledged to bailout
and the Sultanate of Oman
out of the Arab Spring. Three billions more was pledged recently to buy French
arms to prop up the Lebanese army against the Hezbullah-led pro-Syria coalition.
Several billions more have been pledged to Egypt to reinforce the successors of
the ousted former president Mohamed Morsi, let alone the reportedly other
billions spent on financing “regime change” in Syria. Reportedly, Obama tried
to convince King Abdullah during his latest visit to bail out the transition in
Bahrain . Ukraine
To contain the repercussions of the Arab uprisings internally, the Kingdom has already spent even more on buying the loyalty of its own people; for the same purpose twenty Royal Orders, which were economically dominated, were issued in March 2011.
In February 2011, King Abdullah pledged more than $35 billion for housing, salary increases for state employees, studying abroad and social security. The next month the king announced another financial package worth more than $70 billion for more housing units, religious establishment and salary increase for military and security forces.
Bailing the population out of protests economically seemed not enough to secure internal stability as the kingdom, instead of relaxing the internal situation, has recently tightened the screws with the issuing of the Penal Law for Crimes of Terrorism and Its Financing on last January 31, the Royal Decree No. 44, which criminalizes “participating in hostilities outside the kingdom,” three days later and on March 7 the Interior Ministry’s “initial” list of groups the government considers terrorist organizations, both inside and around the country and both Sunni and Shiite.
“These recent laws and regulations turn almost any critical expression or independent association into crimes of terrorism,” said Joe Stork, the deputy director of the Human Rights Watch for the Middle East and
North Africa region. “These regulations dash any hope
that King Abdullah intends to open a space for peaceful dissent or independent
groups,” Stork added.
Internally and externally, the kingdom overconfidently seems intent on creating more enemies, neutralizing none, alienating world and regional powers, mainstream Sunni, Shiite, liberal, pan-Arab and leftist forces, wrecking regional havoc, all in what looks like an unbalanced reaction to threats, real and perceived, to the survival of the ruling dynasty. However, the kingdom seems like shooting its survival in the legs.
* Nicola Nasser is a veteran Arab journalist based in Birzeit, West Bank of the Israeli-occupied Palestinian territories (email@example.com). An edited version of this article was first published by Middle East Eye on April 15, 2014.
Wednesday, April 09, 2014
Assad Is There to Stay
By Nicola Nasser*
Long gone the days when the U.S.-led so-called “Friends of Syria” could plausibly claim that two thirds of Syria was controlled by rebel forces, that Syrian capital Damascus was under siege and its fall was just a matter of time and that the days of President Bashar al-Assad were numbered and accordingly he “should step down.”
The war on
a U-turn during the past year. Assad now firmly holds the military initiative. The
long awaited foreign military intervention could not take off; it was prevented
by the emerging multi-polar world order. Syrian and non-Syrian insurgents are
now on the run. Assad stands there to stay. Syria
The thinly veiled UN legitimacy, which was used to justify the invasions of
Iraq and under the pretexts of the
responsibility to protect on humanitarian grounds, failed to impose no-fly
zones, humanitarian corridors and other instruments of foreign intervention;
they foundered on the borders of Syrian national sovereignty. Libya
The official Syrian Arab Army (SAA), which was strategically organized and stationed to fight a regular war in defence against the Israeli occupying power in the western south of the country, was taken by surprise by an internationally and regionally coordinated unconventional attack on its soft civilian backyard where it had zero presence.
Within a relatively short period of time the SAA succeeded in containing the initial attack, in adapting trained units to unconventional guerrilla war in cities and in winning over the support of the civilian population, without acceding any ground of its defence vis-à-vis
Ever since, the SAA was gaining more ground, liberating more civilian centers from insurgent terrorists, closing more border crossing points used for infiltration of foreign fighters into the country, cutting of their supply lines and besieging pockets of their presence in inner old cities and in their isolated concentrations in the countryside. The capital
more than 95% of the common borders with Lebanon
and the central heart of Syria
now secured. Except the northern city of Homs Raqqa,
no where in
the insurgents can claim exclusive control. The SAA is winning all its battles. Syria
The declared goal now of the U.S., Saudi, Qatari and Turkish financial, military and logistical support for the insurgents is no more the “regime change,” but creating a balance of power aimed at improving their standing in future negotiations with the regime. To do so, they claim they are extending their support to what they describe as the “moderate” insurgents.
However, “moderate” rebels are a rare species in Syrian insurgency. Entering its fourth year now, the war on
has created a highly polarized war zone that has left no room for any moderates.
Combatants are fighting now to death in a battle of life or death. Syria
The fighting lines are strictly drawn between homeland defence and foreign intervention, between national forces and international terrorists and between an existing secular and civil state and a future state perceived to be governed by an extremist or, at the best, a moderate version of Islamist ideology supported by the most backward, tribal and undemocratic regional states with similar sectarian ideologies.
During his testimony at the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on last September 3, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry denied that the “moderate” Syrian rebels are infiltrated by the al-Qaeda terrorists as “basically not true.”
The Syrian “opposition has increasingly become more defined by its moderation, more defined by the breadth of its membership, and more defined by its adherence to some, you know, democratic process and to an all-inclusive, minority protecting constitution, which will be broad-based and secular with respect to the future of Syria,” Kerry testified.
However, hard facts on the ground in
Syria as well
as statements by other
high ranking officials challenge Kerry’s testimony as a politically motivated,
far from truth and misleading statement. U.S.
Last March, General David Rodriguez, head of the U.S. Africa Command, testified before the House Armed Services Committee that “
has become a significant location for al-Qaeda-aligned groups to recruit,
train, and equip extremists.” Syria
The previous month, James Clapper, the
U.S. director of national intelligence, called
a “huge magnet” for Islamic extremists in testimony prepared for the Senate
intelligence committee. Syria
Last January, Clapper also told a Senate intelligence hearing that “training complexes” for foreign fighters were spotted in Syria and chair of the Senate intelligence committee Dianne Feinstein described Syria as “the most notable new security threat in the year” since the committee’s last meeting.
Matthew Olsen, director of the
U.S. government’s National
was on record to say that “
has become really the predominant jihadist battlefield in the world.” Syria
Also on record was Jeh C. Johnson, Secretary of Homeland Security, who stated that the Syria war “has become a matter of homeland security,” former CIA Deputy Director Michael Morell who identified Syria as “the greatest threat to U.S. national security,” FBI Director until last September Robert Mueller who “warned that an increasing flow of U.S. citizens heading to Syria and elsewhere to wage jihad against regional powers could end up in a new generation of home-grown terrorists.”
All these and other high level U.S. conclusions do not testify to the existence of “moderate” insurgents in Syria and vindicate the official Syrian narration as much as they refute Kerry’s statement about the “democratic,” “secular” and “moderate” Syrian “opposition.”
“Moderate” rebels are either marginal or a rare species in Syrian insurgency and if they do exist they are already increasingly concluding “reconciliation” agreements with the Syrian government, according to which they disarm, join the government anti terror and anti “strangers” military and security campaign or simply recurring to attending to their personal lives.
The Americans and their Saudi and Turkish bullies are left with the only option of artificially creating artificial “moderates,” whom they unrealistically and wishfully dream of turning into a credible leading force on the ground.
As part of his efforts to mend fences with
a persistent advocate of war and militarization in , U.S. President Barak Obama
seems to have pursued recently a two-pronged diplomatic and military policy. Syria
Diplomatically, he closed the Syrian embassy and consulates in the
and restricted the
movement of the Syrian envoy to the United Nations as a “down payment” ahead of
his visit to the kingdom on last March 28. United States
Militarily, he promised more arms to Syrian “moderate” rebels during his visit. After the visit he was reportedly considering arming those “moderate” rebels with more advanced weaponry, including anti-aircraft missiles or MANPADs.
While providing those “moderates” with MANPADs is yet to be confirmed, Israel’s Debkafile website on this April 7 reported that two moderate Syrian rebel militias - the Free Syrian Army and the Syrian Revolutionary Front - have been supplied with advanced US weapons, including armour-piercing, optically-guided BGM-71 TOW missiles, which enter the Middle East for the first time. Images of rebels equipped with these arms have begun to circulate in recent days. Both militias are coordinating and cooperating with the al-Qaeda offshoot the Islamic State in
and al-Sham (ISIS) and the al-Qaeda affiliate Jabhat al-Nusra, both listed as
terrorist groups by the U.S.,
Saudi Arabia Syria and . Iraq
About Time for
to Reconsider U.S.
Within this context, the existing CIA-led program in Jordan for training pre-approved “moderates” will reportedly be expanded to raise the number of trainees from one hundred to six hundred a month.
At this rate, according to Charles Lister, a visiting fellow at the Brookings Center in Qatar, writing on this April 3, “it would take close to two years to produce a force” that could numerically rival the extremist “Ahrar al-Sham” group and “it would take seven years” to create a force that could rival the extremist “Islamic Front,” let alone the mainstream groups of terrorist insurgents like the ISIS and the al-Nusra.
Going ahead with such a U.S.-Saudi training program in
is tantamount to planning an extended war on until such time that the
regime changes or the country becomes a failed state, as the planners wishfully
Moderate Syrian rebels are a
mirage. With logistical vital help from U.S. , the Saudi and Qatari U.S.
allies were determined to successfully militarize and hijack legitimate popular
protests for change lest they sweep along their own people and spill over into
their own territories. Turkey
It’s about time that the
U.S. policy makers reconsider,
deal with the facts on the ground in and stop yielding to the
bullying of their regional allies who continue to beat the drums of war only to
survive the regional tidal wave of change. Syria
To contain this tidal wave of change,
Qatar, Saudi Arabia and have sponsored an Islamist
alternative as a counterrevolution. The Muslim Brotherhood International (MBI)
was a version of this alternative. Unfortunately the Turkey got along with it. The MBI
plan in U.S.
has proved counterproductive. Its failure in Egypt Egypt
pre-empted for good any hope for its success in . The ensuing rift among the
anti-Syria allies doomed the plan regionally. Syria
President Assad’s statement on this April 7 that the “project of political Islam” has failed was not overoptimistic or premature. Neither was the statement of his ally, the leader of
Hezbullah, Hassan Nasrallah, on the same day that “the phase of
bringing down the regime or bringing down the (Syrian) state is over… They
cannot overthrow the regime, but they can wage a war of attrition.” Lebanon
U.S. campaign for more than three years now for
a “regime change” in
has created only a “huge magnet” for international terrorism, thanks to Saudi, Qatari
and Turkish military, financial and logistical support. Syria
Peaceful protesters were sidelined to oblivion. More than three years of bloodshed left no room for moderates. “Regime change” by force from outside the country, along the Iraqi and Libyan lines, has proved a failure.
and western calls for Syrian President Bashar al-Assad to step down is now a
faint cry that can hardly be heard. U.S.
All world and regional indications as well as military developments on the ground refer to one fact: Assad is there to stay. Change will come only under his leadership or his guidance. Understanding with him is the only way to internal and regional stability. More or less he has succeeded in turning the “huge magnet” for international terrorists into their killing field. His final victory is only a matter of time. Arming rebels, “moderates” or terrorists regardless, will only perpetuate the Syrian people’s plight and fuel regional anti-Americanism.
The sooner the
act on this fact is
the better for all involved parties. United States
* Nicola Nasser is a veteran Arab journalist based in Bir Zeit, West Bank of the Israeli-occupied Palestinian territories. firstname.lastname@example.org
Tuesday, March 18, 2014
Counterproductive Reactive Saudi Policies
By Nicola Nasser*
Writing in The Washington Post on February 27, 2011, Rachel Bronson asked: “Could the next Mideast uprising happen in
Her answer was: “The notion of a revolution in
the Saudi kingdom seems unthinkable.” Saudi Arabia
However, On September 30 the next year, the senior foreign policy fellow at the Saban Center for Middle East Policy Bruce Riedel concluded that the “revolution in Saudi Arabia is no longer unthinkable.”
To preempt such a possibility, the kingdom in March 2011, in a “military” move to curb the tide of the Arab popular uprisings which raged across the Arab world from sweeping to its doorsteps, the kingdom sent troops to
to quell similar popular protests. Bahrain
That rapid reactive Saudi military move into
heralded a series of reactions that analysts describe as an ongoing Saudi-led
Amid a continuing succession process in Saudi Arabia, while major socioeconomic and political challenges loom large regionally, the kingdom is looking for security as far away as China, but blinded to the shortest way to its stability in its immediate proximity, where regional understanding with its geopolitical Arab and Muslim neighborhood would secure the kingdom and save it a wealth of assets squandered on unguaranteed guarantees.
In his quest to contain any fallout from the “Arab Spring,” Saudi King Abdullah Ben Abdel-Aziz selectively proposed inviting the kingdoms of Jordan and Morocco to join the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), leading The Economist on May 19, 2011 to joke that the organization should be renamed the “Gulf Counter-Revolutionary Club.” For sure including
would be a much better addition if better security was the goal. Yemen
Ahead of US President Barak Obama’s official visit to the kingdom by the end of this March, Saudi Arabia was looking “forward to China as an international magnate with a great political and economic weight to play a prominent role in achieving peace and security in the region,” according to Defense Minister and Crown Prince Salman Bin Abdulaziz Al Saud who was in Beijing from March 13 to 16 “to enhance cooperation with China to protect peace, security and stability in the region.” He was quoted by a statement from the Saudi Press Agency.
Prince Salman was in
from 18-21 last February, hopefully to deepen bilateral cooperation
“in various fields.” On February 26, Japan India
signed an agreement to strengthen co-operation in military training, logistics
supplies and exchange of defense-related information. On last January 23, Saudi Arabia Indonesia and signed a defense cooperation agreement, the first of its kind. Saudi Arabia
While a strong Saudi-Pakistan defense partnership has existed for long, it has been upgraded recently. Princes Salman and Foreign Minister Saud al-Faisal arrived in
February 15. Pakistani army chief General Raheel Sharif was in Pakistan
of South Asia Studies Project at the Middle East Media Research Institute,
Washington DC, upswing in the relationship marks
a qualitative change,” hinting that the kingdom could be seeking Pakistan’s
nuclear capabilities to “counter a nuclear-capable Iran” despite Islamabad’s
denial, which “is not reliable.” The kingdom is moving “to transform itself as
a regional military power,” Sharif wrote. Saudi Arabia
On this March 14, the Financial Times reported that
Saudi Arabia has given $1.5 billion (Dh5.5 billion) to . In
February a senior Pakistani intelligence official told the that Pakistan was seeking “a large
number of [Pakistani] troops to support its campaign along the Yemeni border
and for internal security.” The official confirmed that Saudi Arabia Pakistan’s agreement, during Prince Salman’s visit,
to support the establishment of a “transitional governing body” in
was an important aspect of the deal. Syria
On this March 5, the kingdom led two other members of the six-member GCC, namely the
United Arab Emirates and Bahrain, to withdraw their ambassadors from ,
risking the survival of the GCC. Qatar
Hunting two French and Lebanese birds with one shot, the kingdom early last January pledged a $3 billion royal grant, estimated to be two-time the entire military budget of
to buy French weapons for the Lebanese Army. Lebanon
The Saudi multi-billion dollar support to the change of guards in Egypt early last July and the kingdom’s subscription to Egypt’s make or break campaign against the Muslim Brotherhood (MB) inside and outside the country following the ouster of the MB’s former president Mohammed Morsi reveal a much more important Saudi strategic and security unsigned accord with Egypt’s new rulers.
On the outset of the so-called “Arab Spring,” the kingdom also bailed out
Sultanate of Omen with more multi-billion petrodollars to buy the loyalty of
their population. Bahrain
More multi-billion petrodollars were squandered inside the country to bribe the population against joining the sweeping popular Arab protests.
Yet still more billions were squandered on twenty percent of all arms transfers to the region between 2009-2013 to make the kingdom the world’s fifth largest importer of arms while more Saudi orders for arms are outstanding, according to a new study released on this March 17 by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).
United States will continue to “guarantee Israel’s qualitative military edge” over all the
twenty two Arab nations plus Iran,
Iran is developing its own
defense industries to defend itself against both the US
rendering the Saudi arms procurement efforts obsolete. Israel
Had all of those squandered billions of petrodollars spent more wisely they could have created a revolution of development in the region.
Not Assured by
Ahead of Obama’s visit, the Saudi message is self-evident. They are looking, on their own, for alternative security guarantees, or at least additional ones. They don’t trust their decades - long American security umbrella anymore. The
sellout of close allies like the former presidents of Tunisia, Egypt
and Yemen shed doubt on any
would be trying to convey during Obama’s upcoming visit. Washington
President Obama is scheduled to be in Riyadh by the end of this March to assure Saudi Arabia of what his Deputy Secretary of State Bill Burns on last February 19 told the Center for Strategic and International Studies that the United States takes Saudi security concerns “seriously,” “US-Saudi partnership is as important today as it ever was” and that the “Security cooperation is at the heart of our agenda” with the GCC, reminding his audience that his country still keeps about 35,000 members of the US military at 12 bases in and around the Arabian Gulf.
However, “the Saudi voices I hear do not think that what they see as the current lack of American resolve is merely a short-term feature of the Obama Presidency: They spot a deeper trend of Western disengagement from their region,” Sir Tom Phillips - British Ambassador to Saudi Arabia 2010-12 and an Associate Fellow at the Chatham House Middle East and North Africa Programme - wrote on last February 12.
Obviously, the Saudis are not assured, neither internally, regionally or at the international level because as Burns said on the same occasion: “We don’t always see eye to eye” and it is natural that Gulf states would “question our reliability as partners” given US efforts to achieve energy independence and US warnings that traditional power structures, such as the gulf monarchies, are “unsustainable.”
Obama’s upcoming visit to the kingdom has been described as a “fence-mending” one. Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud Al Faisal, at a joint press conference alongside visiting US Secretary of State John Kerry last November, hinted that fences might not be mended because “a true relationship between friends is based on sincerity, candor, and frankness rather than mere courtesy.”
What Prince Al Faisal described as “frankness” is still missing: His brother, prince Turki al-Faisal, in an interview with The Wall Street Journal last December, blasted the Obama administration for keeping his country in the dark on its secret talks with
"How can you build trust when you keep secrets from what are
supposed to be your closest allies?" Iran
“The Saudis have good reason to feel besieged and fearful,” Immanuel Wallerstein, director emeritus of the
Center at Binghamton
University and senior researcher at Yale University
and Maison des Sciences de l’Homme in Paris, was
quoted as saying by AlJazeera
on this March 1. America
Senior associate of Carnegie’s Middle East program Frederic Wehry on this March 10 wrote that, “There is a growing sense in Gulf capitals … led by
is a power in retreat that is ignoring the interests of its steadfast partners,
if not blithely betraying them.” United States
What Burns described as “tactical differences” with Saudi Arabia and its GCC co-members, the Saudis are acting on the premise that those differences are much more strategic than “tactical” and accordingly are overstretching their search for alternative security guarantees worldwide because they seem to disagree with Burns that “our Gulf partners know that no country or collection of countries can do for the Gulf states what the United States has done and continues to do.”
Pressured between Two ‘Crescents’
Three threatening developments have led to Saudi distrust in US security assurances. The first was the selling out of a
US ally like the
former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak, the second was the Qatari, Turkish and
US coordination with the Muslim Brotherhood regionally and the third was the
assumption to power of the MB in . The first development set the precedent of
selling out of a long regional US ally against the fervent public advice of the
kingdom. Mubarak’s ouster set the red lights on in Egypt Riyadh
of a possible similar scenario in . Saudi Arabia
The second development put the kingdom on alert against the emerging MB, Turkey, Qatar and the US axis that would have encircled Saudi Arabia had the kingdom allowed this axis to hand the power over to the Brotherhood in Syria in the north and in Egypt in the west. The MB is influential in Jordan, the kingdom’s northern neighbor, and in
its southern neighbor. The Hamas’ affiliation to the MB in the Palestinian Gaza
Strip would complete what a Saudi analyst called the “Brotherhood crescent” in
the north, west and south, to squeeze the kingdom between the rock of this “Brotherhood
crescent” and the hard place of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the east. Yemen
The third development surrendered the western strategic backyard of the kingdom to the MB, which has become untrustworthy politically in view of its membership in the emerging US-led ““Brotherhood crescent” after decades of sponsoring the MB leaders who found in the kingdom a safe haven from their suppression in Syria and Egypt and using them against the pan-Arab regimes in both countries and against the pan-Arab and communist political movements.
Unmercifully pressured between the “Brotherhood crescent” and what King Abdullah II of Jordan once described as the “Shiite crescent” extending from Iran through Iraq and Syria to Hezbullah in Lebanon, let alone the al-Qaeda offshoots, which have deep roots inside the kingdom and in its immediate surroundings and have emerged as a major threat to regional as well as to internal stability, in addition to what the Saudis perceive as the withdrawal or at least the rebalancing of the US power out of the region, the kingdom seems poised to find an answer to the question which Bruce Riedel asked on September 30, 2012 about whether or not the “revolution in Saudi Arabia is no longer unthinkable.”
The Saudi answer so far has been reactive more than proactive. “It is difficult to avoid the impression that Saudi policy is more re-active than pro-active,” Sir Tom Phillips - British Ambassador to Saudi Arabia 2010-12 and an Associate Fellow at the Chatham House Middle East and North Africa Programme - wrote on last February 12.
Proactive Shorter Path Overdue
Following the lead of the United States and Europe who have come to deal with the fait accompli that Iran as a pivotal regional power is there to stay for the foreseeable future, a more Saudi proactive regional policy that would engage Iran and Syria would be a much shorter and cheaper route to internal security as well as to regional stability, instead of reacting to their alliance by engaging in a lost and costly battle for a “regime change” in both countries.
Or much better, the kingdom could follow the lead of the Sultanate of Oman, which risked to break away from the GCC should they go along with the Saudi proposal late in 2011 for transforming their “council” into an anti-Iran military “union.” Regardless of what regime rules in
Tehran and since the time
of the Shah, Oman has been
as a strategic partner and promoting an Iranian-GCC regional partnership. Iran Qatar
takes a middle ground between the Saudi and Omani positions vis-à-vis . On this
March 17, the Qatar-Iran joint political committee convened in Iran . Tehran
Feeling isolated, besieged and threatened by being left in the cold as a result of what it perceives as a withdrawing US security umbrella, the kingdom’s new experience of trying to cope on its own is indulging the country in counterproductive external policies in the turmoil of the aftermath of the shock waves of the Arab popular uprisings, which have raged across the Arab world since 2011, but its tide has stopped at the Damascus gate of the Iranian – Syrian alliance, which is backed internationally by the emerging Russian and Chinese world powers.
At the end of the day, the kingdom’s recent historical experience indicates that the Saudi dynasty lived its most safe and secure era during the Saudi-Egyptian-Syrian trilateral understanding, which was developed as a regional axis of stability, as the backbone of the Arab League regional system and was reinforced by the trilateral coordination in the 1973 Arab – Israeli war.
The revival of the Saudi coordination with
the post-Morsi presidency was a crucial first step that would lead nowhere
unless it is completed by an overdue Saudi political U-turn on Syria that would revive the old trilateral axis
to defend Arabs against .
A partnership with Israel Iran
would be a surplus; otherwise the revival of the trilateral coordination would
at least serve as a better Saudi defense against as well. Iran
However such a Saudi U-turn would require of course a strategic decision that would renege on the kingdom’s US-inspired and ill-advised policy of dealing with Syria and Iran as “the enemy,” while dealing with Israel, which still occupies Palestinian, Syrian and Lebanese territories, as a possible “peace partner” and a co-member of an anti-Iran and Syria “front of moderates,” which the successive US administrations have been promoting.
It would first require as well a change of foreign policy decision-makers in
, but such a change will continue to be
wishful thinking until a man of an historic stature holds the wheel at the
driving seat at the helm of the Saudi hierarchy. Until that happens, it might
be too late. Meanwhile, it is increasingly becoming a possibility that the
“revolution in Riyadh
is no longer unthinkable.” Saudi Arabia